All Morgan Plus 8s and Triumph engines have flat tappets that require ZDDP
Castrol Classic Oil With ZDDP Anti-Wear Additive
in 1899, originally as C.C. Wakefield, Castrol launched their first lubricant
for cars in 1906 and have been at the leading edge of lubrication technology
ever since. With the introduction of low viscosity engine oils and changes
to anti-wear additives in modern oils in recent years, owners of veteran,
vintage and classics are asking whether modern oils are suitable for their
Choosing the correct lubricant for your veteran, vintage or classic
vehicle is essential to ensure peak running and maximum wear protection.
The technology of older vehicle engines is very different from today's
modern cars, so to assist owners, Castrol reintroduced their older brands
with their ‘Classic Range’ in the early 1990s. These Classic oils are produced
to original viscosities and importantly have retained the necessary levels
of additives including anti-wear additive ZDDP (zinc dialkyldithiophosphate)
appropriate for the technology of the engines they are designed for and
to provide overall protection. The ZDDP levels are appropriate for engines
that are in use or running-in, including those fitted with new or reconditioned
components, where care should always be taken to follow the manufacturers’
recommendations when breaking in new components such as camshafts.
ZDDP additive provides a high level of anti-wear protection, but its
phosphorus content is harmful to catalytic converters (N.B. Assuming you have cats and only then if they are NOT fully stainless steel) and other emission
equipment fitted to many modern vehicles...but not vintage cars. It has therefore been reduced
in the latest specification oils, designed for engines using the latest
surface hardening technology and meeting the latest emission requirements
for modern vehicles. These requirements also necessitate the use of other
new emission equipment friendly additives not designed for use in veteran,
vintage and classic car engines.
|WATCHPOINT: The explanation here is diplomatic..but helpful as well.
1. The truth is that the US government passed a law requiring a minimum
lifetime for catalytic converters. It was found they rot out faster (8
years) with the traditional ZDDP oil additive rather than the 10 year
average they wanted manufacturers to assure them of.
2. The additive is needed with only "flat tappet" engines..used
with most cars up and through the 1970s. I believe the Land Rover V8
(1963-2004) was last mainstream engine still using flat tappets. But
older Morgan fare will have them as well.
3. The damage caused are with new camshafts. Older engines that have
been seasoned are unlikely to be effected unless a new camshaft is
However, since the engines effected are often VERY costly and no longer
produced, and they do their best on conventional oils which are cheap,
it is a wise precaution to play it safe, check your ZDDP level in the motor oil you are using and/or use a ZDDP additive.
Also be aware that ZDDP levels can be reduced or eliminated without the
name of the oil being changed! Find recent spec sheets and check them
Oil formulations required for today’s modern vehicles are very different
from formulations needed for older vehicles, having thinner viscosity and
alternative additive technology as stated earlier, making them generally
unsuitable for use in older engines. This has been done in conjunction
with new vehicle manufacturers who have increased the surface hardening
of engine components to receive maximum protection from the new additives.
Oils for modern engines comply with the latest API ratings and are designed
for modern engine technology with tight tolerances and compatibility with
catalytic converters. A car engine of old design has very different characteristics,
with cork, graphite or rope seals, low pressure cog driven oil pumps, wider
oil-ways with greater dependence on ‘splash’ and ‘cling’ lubrication, lower
revving with lesser machine tolerances. Such widely different specifications
demand totally different lubricants of thicker viscosity with appropriate
additives specially included for the work they have to do. Oils even of
the same viscosity, supplied by different oil companies can have radically
different formulations and thus have significantly different performance
characteristics. Oil classifications are designated ‘S’ (for spark ignition
petrol engines) and ‘C’ (for compression ignition diesel engines). Oil
classifications for older petrol vehicles range from SA for vehicles from
the turn of the last century to SH, to the late 1980s and early ‘90s.
Inadequate anti-wear additive (ZDDP) and the oil film between moving
parts breaks down prematurely, resulting in metal to metal contact and
damage to reground or new engine components particularly on run-in.
Inadequate detergent will result in gum and lacquer clinging to
the hotter engine components.
Too much detergent can cause a build-up of metallic ash in the combustion
chambers of older engines. In older engines with traditionally high oil
consumption, this will cause detonation and pinking. In older engines where
the carbon has built up over a number of years the detergents can also
have a scouring effect causing the carbon to flake off, blocking up oil
galleries and spray jets. High levels of detergent will ‘wash’ traces of
carbon from seals and gaskets, revealing oil leaks.
Inadequate anti-oxidant and the oil will permanently thicken during
high temperature motoring, with large amounts of gum and varnish clogging
filters and piston rings.
Inadequate corrosion inhibitors and engine internals become pitted
with corrosion and rust from acids and water formed during combustion.
Inadequate dispersing results in soot, wear metals and the by-products
of combustion settling out in the sump to form a thick sludge that will
block filters and oil ways.
Inadequate pour point depressant and the oil ceases to flow at low
temperatures, with excessive strain on the oil pump or in certain cases,
oil starvation on start-up causing complete failure of the lubrication
For older vehicles; veteran, vintage and classic, use an oil of the correct
viscosity as recommended by the vehicle manufacturer and shown in your
vehicle’s handbook. Where your vehicle requires a specific viscosity such
as 30, 40, 50 and 20w-50, avoid using inappropriate low viscosity engine
lubricants designed for modern vehicles such as 0w, 5w, 10w, 15w.
Castrol’s vehicle lubrication records date back beyond the turn of the
last century, detailing lubricant specifications for engine oils, gear
oils and greases right through to today's classics, so to find out which
Castrol grade is right for a vehicle, owners can simply refer to their
vehicle handbook and select that grade from Castrol’s Classic range. Castrol’s
Classic engine oils XL30, XXL40, GP50 and XL20w-50 are formulated to the
original viscosities and contain the necessary levels of ZDDP anti-wear
additive to provide appropriate protection for veteran, vintage and classic
engines. The range is available throughout the UK via leading car specialists.
For further information either telephone the Castrol Classic help desk on
01954 231668 or visit www.castrol.com/uk/classics
I recently came across an article written by a mechanic
review a Rover V8 he had rebuilt. The rebuild failed fairly quckly,
with the new composite valley gasket in pieces and blocking oil
passages and the new camshaft noticeably damaged. The cam mirrors
reports we have had from mechanics fitting flat tappet cars with
new camshafts and using a new low zddp oil additive.
Firstly, I cannot be sure what happened to the valley gasket. I have
used them with originallly-tin gasket cars with never a problem. I
wondering how he installed it..
But more importantly he used Shell Helix HX7 (10W40), a oil NOT recommended for the pre-1996 Rover V8s and with reduced ZDDP additives. Be warned.
ZDDP How Much? How Long Does It Last?
A percentage of 1300+ ppm is considered adequate.
If you use too much, it will be vented...without damage unless you use a ton more than necessary continually. However,
ZDDP only lasts 2500 miles..which is about the oil change
interval for a Morgan TR or Plus 8.