The Morgan Rack & Pinion Steering
by Lorne Goldman

1.    History
2.    General
3.    Turns-to-lock
4.    Jack Knight and Quaife
5.    The Centre Gaiter
6.    Changing the Centre Gaiter
7.    Steering Play
8.    Centre Plate to Rack
9.    Tierods to Centre Plate
10.  Bolts Through the Securing Blocks
11.  Bump Steer Comment
12.  Jack Knight Switching Sides  

In 1983,  the Morgan Motor Company approached Jack Knight Ltd., a noted British aftermarket steering specialist, to design a rack and pinion steering system for the Plus 8, the heaviest of the model line-up and accordingly the most in need of a steering improvement. The resultant rack was a great step forward and was first offered in 1984 as an optional extra at £250. It became standard on all Plus 8s by 1986, unless a customer was crazy enough to ask for the older system. By 1991, it became a free option for Plus 4s and by the mid-1990s it was standard on all Morgans.

Though the design falls far short of an ideal in areas, it is a vast improvement on previous Morgan steering systems and has three great virtues; it is simple, it is solid and it fits on the Morgan front end. There is little that go wrong with it outside of the most basic human errors in fitting and checking it. On very rare occasion  it can require adjustment, which is dealt with by David Poole in his eMog posting, and after much mileage the rack channel and spacers may require redressing, and easy job for any machine shop. I have had a full refurbishing done in the UK for 75&pounds;.

The Morgan Motor Company had the stock rack's turns-to-lock changed a number of times during its history. The Jack Knight rack can be had with 2.3, 2.7, 3.0 or 3.5 turns to lock and the choice will be one major determinant, of the compromise between steering reactiveness or ease of steering. As well, the Jack Knight rack takes only a short time to switch from LHD to RHD or back.

In 2007, the original Jack Knight company fell into bankruptcy and the MMC asked Quaife Engineering to supply the rack. For all intents and purposes, the Quaife Morgan racks are the same and can be retrofitted to Jack Knight cars. The Quaife racks can be distinguished only by their different centre gaiters, a big improvement over the Jack Knight gaiter. However, Jack Knight has been reborn under the management of its former employees and an upgraded gaiter, as good as the Quaife gaiter, can be had from them if you can get them to call back.

The old style JK gaiter is flimsy and expensive. Once they are torn (a MOT issue), the wisest course is to replace them with the new JK gaiter which is as good as the Quaife.  (The Quaife gaiter will not fit a Jack Knight rack.) Quaife parts can only be ordered through the MMC, Jack Knight parts can be ordered from Jack Knight directly.

WATCHPOINT Any time the tie rods are removed from the steering rack center plate, the steering alignment should be verified. This is made more important if the plate itself is removed and even doubled again if both clamps holding the rack to the crossframe are removed, (Though this is not strictly necessary to change the gaiter, many take both clamps off to remove the whole assembly.) All or most of this must be done simply to change the center gaiter. The play at each junction is sufficient to through your steering out of alignment. Trust ME on this and not your local non-Morgan mechanic. Many owners have found the steering canting off one way or another after a gaiter change.

by Lorne Goldman

If you can, the gaiter is best changed with the rack in situ annd wheels on the ground. This may sound nutty, but if the rack is removed, it requires so many items to be uninstalled that a full alignment and steering wheel adjustment will be compulsory. This method will minimize the wheel alignment issues when you re-assemble. If you raise the car, then try to brace the wheels so that their relationship with the rack does not change during the process. Secondly, the gaiter CAN be changed with the rack in situ, no need to remove the whole thing unless you really want to.  With a RHD you can slip it over the rack from the right hand side (as you are looking at the rack from the front of the car) and the from the other side with a LHD.

For those who wish to remove the rack, this can be done by removing the steering column at the rack rear and then removing the two block brankets holding the rack to the crossframe.

1. Open the lock tabs on the steering center plate, and unbolt the tie-rods from the center plate (you will need a spanner to hold the nuts from the back)

2. Let the tierods fall to the floor and do NOT move them

3.  Open the second set of lock tabs and unbolt the center plate from the rack.

WATCHPOINT I: The center-plate-to-rack bolts go through two spacers that slide in the rack. They are not visible as the gaiters hide them. They create a snug fit in the channel, reduce the amount of horizontal play, which in turn, steadies the entire steering, (ANY BIT OF MOVEMENT HERE WILL BE MULTIPLIED BY THE LENGTH OF THE STEERING COLUMN BEFORE IT REACHES THE STEERING WHEEL). More on this latter.

WATCHPOINT II: These rack spacers are designed to serve another purpose. They protect the gaiter at its weakest point. If you look closely, (when you can examine the spacers) you will notice thatt they have a small raised circlet in their metal on the side that faces the bolt entry. This raised area goes into the two gaiter bolt holes and prevents the bolts from crushing the gaiter and splitting the split will grow over time. If you are not aware of this, the overwhelming possibility is that you split the gaiter at these points and yet pat yourself in the head for a "job well done". Owners do it, dealers do it, and it is very sad event  at 60 quid a pop.

4.  Now you remove the the bolts from the right side aluminum block holding the rack to the crossframe, split it into its two pieces with a light hammer tap if necessary. You can cut (knife or scissors) the old gaiter from the rack or slide it off the right side you opened up. Watch for the spacers to fall out. 

5. Now, test something. Can you squeeze the oily spacers through the bolt holes in the gaiter?  You should be able to and I want you to be confident of that. Next slide the new gaiter back onto the rack, like you were putting nylons on your favorite lady (or man). Be careful not to snag it but it will adapt and stretch. You want its front (the center section with the two holes) to be facing forward and you want the two spacers to be in the correct position in the channel and facing forward. Fiddling will be involved..a Morgan tradition!

6. Now fiddle in the plate-to-rack bolts. You must align the bolts, the lock tabs, the gaiter bolt holes, the spacers and threaded holes in the rack pinion..a screw drivers and you no-oily fingers can be used. Get each one threaded loosely before you tighten anything. Please don''t forget anything or their order. You do NOT want to get me upset. 

7. Once you tightened the bolts, lock the tabs. Only one bit need be touching each bolts. 

8. Re-install the aluminum block on the right attaching the rack to the crossframe.

9. Forget the silly metal bands they used to clamp the gaiter,  use the right-sized tie wrap and trim off the ends. 

10. Then put on the tie-rods, this might require you to move the center plate along the rack. It is better to move the rack than the rods. Now close their lack tabs. Now get a bit of oil paint and make reference lines from a corner of each of the four bolts. In the future, these lines will allow you to see if any of these all important bolts have shifted at a quick glance. 

11. The trick with the end cones is that people slide them on too far. First deep turn and they pierce the cone with the rack without knowing it. The rack does not require much lubrication. Almost anything will do, hypoy oil (like you use in the axle) or chain saw oil or use the silly GoMoG Manual . Jack the car front on one side so it is atilt. Remove the cone. Fill it up and fit it back on. Tie-wrap it.  As you have taken the whole center gaiter off,  do it on the other side as well.  Otherwise, topping up one side is sufficent for maintenance purposes.
WATCHPOINT III:  Yes. You're right. The JK gaiter is a fright. It is a flimsy affair made by laminating (coating)  silicone on a form. It is nowhere near the quality of similar gaiters  and its price is a function of insane greed. Jack Knight no longer supplies them.. I have heard they are now made for Morgan directly by the old JK supplier. There are those looking into a higher quality gaiter, easily sourced and reasonably priced. Perhaps that will shame the company into being kinder.  However, for those of us in the UK, it is also a cause of a MOT failure. The examiners are not happy with lubricant leaks next to disc brakes. So, if you have one, do not demostrate your one-shot oiler to them either!!! 


Every vehicle has the same three component systems that form the first line of safety for the occupants. They are tyres, brakes and steering. There can be no compromises entertained with any of them. Happily, Morgan trads are very wondrously simple in these areas and the task to keep these areas safe is not difficult or cumbersome. However, I cannot over-emphasize the need for vigilance or the dangers of getting the wrong advice (I have seen some horrid examples of the latter! If you have any doubts whatsoever, consult an experienced Morgan dealer. Happily, the key safety watchpoints are SO simple that common sense should warn you away from any advice you cannot immediately judge as correct at a glance, whether you are mechanically enabled or not.


Morgan rack and pinion steering systems should have NO play at the steering wheel. None. There are a number of causes for play, but the most dangerous ones relate to the fitting of the rack and its tie-rods. Be aware that the length of the steering column will exaggerate any rack anomaly at the steering wheel. making the steering wheel your best early warning system. A soon as play is noticed, three areas MUST be checked before driving further.

1. the two bolts holding the centre plate to the steering rack itself.

2. the two bolts holding the tie-rods (those rods which connect the steering rack to the front stub axles and therefore the wheels) to the steering rack centre plate.

3. the four bolts (2 each side) running through the two blocks that hold the rack to the car frame.

(Consult the diagrams).

Between 1-3 the rack is held to the car and the wheels to the rack. If they are compromised so is your steering and your safety. At one time or another, I have seen each of these areas with loose bolts. Care can prevent this.

Many times a visual test will locate the problem. To test, have someone at the steering wheel and have them turn the wheel while you look at the three areas, #2 will be difficult as the bolts are obscured by the #1 bolts. To it with the front tyres on the ground and then again with them off. The rack should NOT move on the frame and the only movement of the rods should be from side to side.

These two bolts go through a lock tab, the centre plate, often a small washer and then through the important rack spacers (that keep the assembly guided within the parameters of the channel in the rack) and then thread into the pinion. Obviously, if these bolts come loose, the rack is no longer fully secures the centre plate and therefore the tierods. Effectively, the steering wheel is losing its connection with the front wheels. There are supposed to be secured by the lock tab..but this can be left off by forgetfulness, or the tabs can be forgotten (not closed), or have a insufficient contact with the bolts.)

It is hard to perfectly ascertain the state as the tierods cover these bolts. The centre plate tierod bolts, must be removed and the tierods moved away top allow these inner bolts to be examined. Once this is done, pull back the tabs and try to tighten the two bolts. Once tightened, carefully bend back the tabs.

N.B. Use a white paint marker to draw a reference line from a point on each bolt to places on the plate of your choosing. This reference line will make future examinations easy as you will know in an instant if the bolt has moved if the line on the bolt and the plate are no longer aligned.

N.B. If you remove the bolts entirely, you will have to reposition them through the gaiter and then the spacers (by fiddling with the spacers) and then find the correct hole in the pinion.

N.B. With the older style Jack Knight gaiters (approximately 8000 Morgans from 1984 to 2007), close examination will show that the spacer has a round raised area or that there is a small washer between the centre plate and the gaiter. This was done to match the holes in the gaiter for the bolts. Without the raised area or CORRECT sized washer, the plate will clamp the silicone gaiter and the gaiter will split. 


If you have properly dealt with the Centre Plate to Rack bolts, you have removed the tierods from the centre plate. Simply reassemble these, tighten and lock them with the tabs. Use the paint market system on these bolts as well.


Simple. There are two sets of 2 half blocks that secure the rack to two L brackets on the car's crossframe.  (See the diagram above indicating "rack holder" & cross frame".) Each half block has a half round centre that together match the rack and two high grade long bolts going though the two halves into the L brackets. When assembled the blocks clamp the rack onto the brackets and the frame.  If the bolts loosen, the rack loosens and moves askew with steering and road anomalies. If the bolts fall out...

Check whether they are tight.  In the normal course, these bolts should not loosen as they are held with nylocs. However, negligence is always possible and the re-use of nylocs leads to their losing their ability to lock. One can use new nylocs, or a bit of loctite blue or ultimately, stover nuts instead of nylocs. If there is concern, use the same white line reference discussed above.
There is sufficent play in these bolt holes to warrant verifiying the wheel alignment if any looseness has been detected and cured.

Bump Steer
by Lorne Goldman

I imagine this bit will also cause protests in some corners. I acknowledge that there have been many who have written sagely and with great solemnity on this subject.   They have pondered for decades on such sundries as to whether the tie-rods should be afixed atop or below the stub axle arms, or how much longer the rods should be to minimize bump steer.I am sorry for them for this bit. Indeed, many in the new predatory aftermarket have convinced owners to spend silly sums of money and effort curing it. Even the older significantly more honest aftermarket will sell cures (much less expensive) to those that have been convinced to fret about it. But they confide to me that their cures are out of kindness and a recognition of the psychological releif they provide. (wry smile) 

However, the truth of the matter is that the famous flexing of the Morgan chassis makes bump steer unimportant..a non-issue..or at least impossible to deal with aside from car by car. 

Whenever they-who-wish-to-apply-other-automotive-technology consider the Morgan suspension and steering, they omit to factor in the impossible-to-quantify, namely the flexing of the chassis. This flexing not only varies from chassis to chassis, car to car, it also changes with each model and each car over time/usage. Measures that are designed for one car will not help another except by coincidence. It may even cause a prejudice. Imagine designing something for an old well-used 4/4 and transferring it to a later heavier Plus 8 or Roadster!! However, the newer "experts", are reluctant to admit or even acknowledge the most salient and influential component on the car. The chassis and the open top which have to individualize every car. But individual cars cannoit generate one-size-fits-all the convince the market that all Morgans are identical.c They plunge ahead, trained and limited by an education and training that applies to the type of chassis of other vehicles use. Indeed, sometimes their kit will be an improvement to a varying degree from car to car, sometimes it will add nothing and just as often it will prejudice the suspension.  

It is for you to decide, for yourself,  whether you think all Classic Morgans are a bit different or identical. Ask THAT question of your peer group! Sadly, these things have become "poltical" rather than decided by common sense. Too little savvy and too much money involved.  :(

There is a wonderful Peter Morgan anecdote that is germane. Some 70 years ago he fit shocks to the Morgan front, fit alongside the kingpin springs, just as they are today unchanged since then. When asked whether they improved the handling or the ride, PM shrugged, indicating they had no effect that he could discern. But he confided that buyers were concerned as they saw them on other, different he slapped on. 

One day, for your own amusement and in memory of Peter Morgan, remove your front dampers and go for a test drive.